Thomas was one of twelve children born to Colonel Charles Stewart Todd, son of Supreme Court Associate Justice Thomas Todd, and Letitia Shelby, daughter of Governor Isaac Shelby.
Thomas was married three times. His first wife was Jane Smith. They were the parents of two sons, Charles Stewart and Henry Smith. Jane died October 16, 1845, and Thomas married Susan Jacobs who died October 1, 1853. There were no known children born to this marriage. On May 10, 1860, Thomas married Elizabeth Dawley Bonney. They were the parents of five known children.
Thomas served in the Civil War and two terms as a state legislator. He was a member of the Republican Party.